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Lilleshall Primary School

Working Together for Excellence and Enjoyment

Years 5 and 6

Repetitions are highlighted in yellow

Lilleshall Primary School

Science Knowledge and Skills Progression

Years 5 and 6

 

End Points

  • During years 5 and 6, pupils should be taught to use the following practical scientific methods, processes and skills through the teaching of the programme of study content:
  • planning different types of scientific enquiries to answer questions, including recognising and controlling variables where necessary
  • taking measurements, using a range of scientific equipment, with increasing accuracy and precision, taking repeat readings when appropriate
  • recording data and results of increasing complexity using scientific diagrams and labels, classification keys, tables, scatter graphs, bar and line graphs
  • using test results to make predictions to set up further comparative and fair tests
  • reporting and presenting findings from enquiries, including conclusions, causal relationships and explanations of and degree of trust in results, in oral and written forms such as displays and other presentations
  • identifying scientific evidence that has been used to support or refute ideas or arguments.

 

Working towards (UKS2 children can…)

ARE (UKS2 children can…)

Greater Depth (UKS2 children can…)

Work

Scientifically

 

Plan

 

Do

 

Record

 

Review

  • ask relevant questions and using different types of scientific enquiries to answer them
  • set up simple practical enquiries, comparative and fair tests
  • make systematic and careful observations and , where appropriate, taking accurate measurements using standard units, using a range of equipment, including thermometers and data loggers
  • gather, record, classify and present data in a variety of ways to help in answering questions
  • record findings using simple scientific language, drawings, labelled diagrams, keys, bar charts, and tables
  • use prepared tables and block graphs, including ICT forms.
  • report on findings from enquiries, include oral and written explanations, displays or presentations of results and conclusions
  • use results to draw simple conclusions, make predictions for new values, suggest improvements and raise further questions
  • identify differences, similarities or changes related to simple scientific ideas and processes
  • use straightforward scientific evidence to answer questions or to support their findings.
  • Relates explanations of patterns in results to scientific knowledge and understanding when explaining reasoning.
  • plan different types of scientific enquiries to answer questions, including recognising and controlling variables where necessary
  • use test results to make predictions to set up further comparative and fair tests
  • take measurements, using a range of scientific equipment, with
  • increasing accuracy and precision, taking repeat readings when appropriate
  • Repeats sets of observations or measurements, where appropriate, selecting suitable ranges and intervals, to give sufficient depth of evidence.
  • record data and results of increasing complexity using scientific diagrams and labels, classification keys, tables, scatter graphs, bar and line graphs,
  • report and present findings from enquiries, including conclusions, causal relationships and explanations  results, explanations of and degree of trust in results, in oral and written forms such as displays and other presentations across a range of genre
  • identify scientific evidence that has been used to support or refute ideas or arguments.                                                      
  • ask questions and develop a line of enquiry based on observations of the real world alongside prior knowledge and experience
  • make predictions using scientific knowledge and understanding
  • select, plan and carry out the most appropriate types of scientific enquiries to test predictions…
  • make and record observations and measurements using a range of methods for different investigations; and evaluate the reliability  of methods and suggest possible improvements
  • present observations and data using appropriate methods, including tables and graphs
  • interpret observations and data, including identifying patterns and using observations, measurements and data to draw conclusions
  • draws valid conclusions that utilise more than one piece of supporting evidence.
  • present reasoned explanations, including data in relation to predictions and hypotheses
  • evaluate data, showing awareness of potential sources of error
  • identify further questions arising from results

Properties and changes of materials (Y5)

  • compare and group materials together, according to whether they are solids, liquids or gases

 

  • observe that some materials change state when they are heated or cooled, and measure or research the temperature at which this happens in degrees Celsius
  • compare and group together everyday materials based on evidence from comparative and fair tests, including their hardness, solubility, transparency, conductivity (electrical and thermal), and response to magnets
  • know that some materials will dissolve in liquid to form a solution, and describe how to recover a substance from a solution
  • use knowledge of solids, liquids and gases to decide how mixtures might be separated, including through filtering, sieving and evaporating
  • give reasons, based on evidence from comparative and fair tests, for the particular uses of everyday materials, including metals, wood and plastic
  • demonstrate that dissolving, mixing and changes of state are reversible changes
  • explain that some changes result in the formation of new materials, and that this kind of change is not usually reversible, include changes associated with burning and the action of acid on bicarbonate of soda

 

 

 

 

  • describe the different states of matter in terms of particle model….
  • Explain changes of state in terms of particle model
  • explain simple techniques for separating mixtures: filtration, evaporation, distillation and chromatography

 

Animals, including humans (Y5)

 

  • (from ks1) notice that animals, including humans, have offspring which grow into adults

 

  • describe the changes as humans develop  to old age

 

 

 

 

 

  • describe reproduction in humans, including the structure and function of the male and female reproductive systems, menstrual cycle (without details of hormones), gametes, fertilisation, gestation and birth, to include the effect of maternal lifestyle on the foetus through the placenta

 

Living things and their habitats (Y5)

  • explore the part flowers play in the life cycle of flowering plants, including pollination, seed formation and seed dispersal
  • explore and use classification keys to help group, identify and name a variety of living things in their local environment
  • describe the difference in the life cycles of a mammal, an amphibian an insect and a bird
  • describe the life process of reproduction in some plants and animals
  • describe the interdependence of organisms in an ecosystem, including food webs and insect pollinated crops
  • the importance of plant reproduction through insect pollination in human food security
  • identify differences between species
  • understand heredity as the process by which genetic information is transmitted from one generation to the next

 

Animals, including humans (Y6)

  • identify that animals, including humans, need the right types and amount of nutrition, and that they cannot make their own food; they get nutrition from what they eat
  • describe the simple functions of the basic parts of the digestive system in humans
  • identify the different types of teeth in humans and their simple functions.

 

 

 

  • identify and name the main parts of the human circulatory system, and describe the functions of the heart, blood vessels and blood (including the pulse and clotting).
  • recognise the impact of diet, exercise, drugs and lifestyle on the way their bodies function.
  • describe the ways in which nutrients and water are transported within animals, including humans

 

  • explain the mechanism of breathing to move air in and out of the lungs, using a pressure model to explain the movement of gases…
  • describe the content of  a healthy human diet: carbohydrates, lipids (fats and oils), proteins, vitamins, minerals, dietary fibre and water, and why each is needed
  • describe the consequences of imbalances in the diet, including obesity, starvation and deficiency diseases
  • describe the effects of recreational drugs on behaviour, health and life processes

Evolution and inheritance (Y6)

  • recognise that environments can change and that this can sometimes pose dangers to living things
  • recognise that living things have changed over time and that fossils provide information about living things that inhabited the Earth millions of years ago
  • recognise that living things produce offspring of the same kind, but normally offspring vary and are not identical to their parents
  • identify how animals and plants are adapted to suit their environment in different ways and that adaptation may lead to evolution
  • identify differences between species
  • explain that the variation between species and between individuals within a species means some organisms compete more successfully, which can drive natural selection
  • describe how changes in the environment may leave individuals within a species, and some entire species, less well adapted to compete successfully and reproduce, which in turn may lead to extinction

 

Living things and their habitats (Y6)

  • recognise that living things can be grouped in a variety of ways
  • explore and use classification keys to help group, identify and name a variety of living things in their local and wider environment

 

  • describe how living things are classified into broad groups according to common observable characteristics and based on similarities and differences, including micro-organisms, plants and animals
  • give reasons for classifying plants and animals based on specific characteristics

 

 

  • identify differences between species
  • describe the variation between individuals within a species being continuous or discontinuous…

 

Earth and space (Y5)

 

  • recognise that they need light in order to see things and that dark is the absence of light
  • recognise that light from the Sun can be dangerous and that there are ways to protect our eyes

 

  • describe the movement of the Earth, and other planets relative to the Sun in the solar system
  • describe the movement of the Moon relative to the Earth
  • describe the Sun, Earth and Moon as approximately spherical bodies
  • use the idea of the Earth’s rotation to explain day and night and the apparent movement of the sun across the sky

 

  • know our Sun as a star, other stars in our galaxy, other galaxies
  • understand how we have the seasons and the Earth’s tilt, day length at different times of the year, in different hemispheres

 

Forces (Y5)

  • compare how things move on different surfaces

 

  • notice that some forces need contact between two objects but magnetic forces act at a distance

 

  • explain that unsupported objects fall towards the Earth because of the force of gravity acting between the Earth and the falling object

 

  • identify the effect of  air resistance, water resistance and friction, that act between moving surfaces

 

 

  • recognise that some mechanisms including levers, pulleys and gears allow a smaller force to have a greater effect

 

  • describe forces as pushes or pulls, arising from the interaction between two objects
  • identify non-contact forces: gravity forces acting at a distance on earth and in space, forces between magnets …
  • use force arrows in diagrams, adding forces in one dimension, balanced and unbalanced forces
  • explain forces: associated with deforming objects; stretching and squashing-springs; with rubbing and friction between surfaces, with pushing things out of the way; resistance to motion of air and water
  • describe forces being needed to cause an object to stop or start moving, or to change their speed or direction of motion
  • know forces can be measured in newtons

 

Electricity (Y6)

 

 

  • identify common appliances that run on electricity
  • construct a simple series electrical circuit identifying and naming  the basic parts of a simple electrical circuit, including cells, wires, bulbs, switches and buzzers
  • identify whether or not a lamp will light in a simple series circuit based on whether or not the lamp is part of a complete loop with a battery
  • recognise that a switch opens and closes a circuit and associate this with whether or not a lamp lights in a simple series circuit
  • recognise some common conductors and insulators, and associate metals with being good conductors

 

 

  • associate the brightness of a lamp or the volume of a buzzer with the number and voltage of cells used in the circuit
  • compare and give reasons for variations in how components function, including the brightness of bulbs, the loudness of buzzers and the on/off position of switches
  • use recognised symbols when representing a simple circuit in a diagram

 

  • talk about electric current
  • describe potential difference, measured in volts, battery and bulb rating
  • differences in resistance between conducting and insulating components

 

Light (Y6)

 

  • recognise that they need light in order to see things and that dark is the absence of light
  • notice that light is reflected from surfaces
  • recognise that shadows are formed when a light source is blocked by a solid object
  • find patterns in the way that the size of shadows change

 

  • recognise that light appears to travel in straight lines
  • use the idea that light travels in straight lines to explain that objects are seen because they give out or reflect light into the eye
  • explain that we see things because light travels from light sources to our eyes or from light sources to objects and then to our eyes
  • use the idea that light travels in straight lines to explain why shadows have the same shape as the objects that cast them

 

  • use of ray model to explain imaging in mirrors…
  • describe the transmission of light through materials; absorption, diffuse scattering and specular reflection at a surface
  • explain colours and the different frequencies of light, white light and prisms (qualitative only)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Year 5 – key vocabulary

 

Earth and Space

 

Earth, Sun, Moon, (Mercury, Jupiter, Saturn, Venus, Mars, Uranus, Neptune) spherical, solar system, rotates, star, orbit, planets

 

Materials

Thermal/electrical insulator/conductor, change of state, mixture, dissolve, solution, soluble, insoluble, filter, sieve reversible/non-reversible change, burning, rusting, new material

 

Forces

Force, gravity, Earth, air resistance, water resistance, friction, mechanisms, simple machines, levers, pulleys, gears

 

 

Animals including humans

Heart, pulse, rate, pumps, blood, blood vessels, transported, lungs, oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, water, muscles, cycle, circulatory system, diet, exercise, drugs and lifestyle

 

Living things and habitats

Life cycle, reproduce, sexual, sperm, fertilises, egg, live young, metamorphosis, asexual, plantlets, runners, bulbs, cuttings

 

 

 

Year 6 – key vocabulary

 

Electricity

Circuit, complete circuit, circuit diagram, circuit symbol, cell, battery, bulb, buzzer, motor, switch, voltage - NB Children do not need to understand what voltage is but will use volts and voltage to describe different batteries. The words cells and batteries are now used interchangeably

 

Light

Light, light source, dark, absence of light, transparent, translucent, opaque, shiny, matt, surface, shadow, reflect, mirror, sunlight, dangerous, straight lines, light rays.

 

Living things and habitats

 

Vertebrates, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals, invertebrates, insects, spiders, snails, worms, flowering and non-flowering

 

Evolution and Inheritance

 

Offspring, sexual reproduction, vary, characteristics, suited, adapted, environment, inherited, species, fossils

 

 

 

 

Animals including humans

 

Vocab to be decided alongside Jigsaw ‘Changing Me’ unit

 

 

 

       

 

Key stage 3

Working scientifically

Through the content across all three disciplines, pupils should be taught to:

Scientific attitudes

  • pay attention to objectivity and concern for accuracy, precision, repeatability and reproducibility
  • understand that scientific methods and theories develop as earlier explanations are modified to take account of new evidence and ideas, together with the importance of publishing results and peer review

 evaluate risks.

Experimental skills and investigations

  • ask questions and develop a line of enquiry based on observations of the real world, alongside prior knowledge and experience

 make predictions using scientific knowledge and understanding

  • select, plan and carry out the most appropriate types of scientific enquiries to test predictions, including identifying independent, dependent and control variables, where appropriate
  • use appropriate techniques, apparatus, and materials during fieldwork and laboratory work, paying attention to health and safety
  • make and record observations and measurements using a range of methods for different investigations; and evaluate the reliability of methods and suggest possible improvements
  • apply sampling techniques.

Analysis and evaluation

  • apply mathematical concepts and calculate results
  • present observations and data using appropriate methods, including tables and graphs

 interpret observations and data, including identifying patterns and using observations, measurements and data to draw conclusions

  •  present reasoned explanations, including explaining data in relation to predictions and hypotheses
  • evaluate data, showing awareness of potential sources of random and systematic error
  • identify further questions arising from their results

Measurement

  • understand and use SI units and IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) chemical nomenclature
  • use and derive simple equations and carry out appropriate calculations
  • undertake basic data analysis including simple statistical techniques.

Subject content

https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/335174/SECONDARY_national_curriculum_-_Science_220714.pdf

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