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Lilleshall Primary School

Working Together for Excellence and Enjoyment

Years 3 and 4

Repetitions are highlighted in yellow

Lilleshall Primary School

Science Knowledge and Skills Progression

Years 3 and 4

 

End Points

During years 3 and 4, pupils should be taught to use the following practical scientific methods, processes and skills through the teaching of the programme of study content:

  • asking relevant questions and using different types of scientific enquiries to answer them
  • setting up simple practical enquiries, comparative and fair tests
  • making systematic and careful observations and, where appropriate, taking accurate measurements using standard units, using a range of equipment, including thermometers and data loggers
  • gathering, recording, classifying and presenting data in a variety of ways to help in answering questions
  • recording findings using simple scientific language, drawings, labelled diagrams, keys, bar charts, and tables
  • reporting on findings from enquiries, including oral and written explanations, displays or presentations of results and conclusions
  • using results to draw simple conclusions, make predictions for new values, suggest improvements and raise further questions
  • identifying differences, similarities or changes related to simple scientific ideas and processes
  • using straightforward scientific evidence to answer questions or to support their findings.

 

Working towards (LKS2 children can…)

ARE (LKS2 children can…)

Greater Depth (LKS2 children can…)

Work

Scientifically

 

Plan

 

Do

 

Record

 

Review

  • asking simple questions and recognising that they can be answered in different ways
  •       observe closely, using simple equipment
  • perform simple tests
  • identify and classify
  • gather and recording data to help in answering questions
  • use their observations and ideas to suggest answers to questions
  • Describes what has happened, making comparisons where appropriate. With support, sequences results, e.g. from smallest to largest.

 

  • ask relevant questions and using different types of scientific enquiries to answer them
  • set up simple practical enquiries, comparative and fair tests
  • make systematic and careful observations and , where appropriate, taking accurate measurements using standard units, using a range of equipment, including thermometers and data loggers
  • gather, record, classify and present data in a variety of ways to help in answering questions
  • record findings using simple scientific language, drawings, labelled diagrams, keys, bar charts, and tables
  • use prepared tables and block graphs, including ICT forms.
  • report on findings from enquiries, include oral and written explanations, displays or presentations of results and conclusions
  • use results to draw simple conclusions, make predictions for new values, suggest improvements and raise further questions
  • identify differences, similarities or changes related to simple scientific ideas and processes
  • use straightforward scientific evidence to answer questions or to support their findings.
  • Relates explanations of patterns in results to scientific knowledge and understanding when explaining reasoning.
  • plan different types of scientific enquiries to answer questions, including recognising and controlling variables where necessary
  • use test results to make predictions to set up further comparative and fair tests
  • take measurements, using a range of scientific equipment, with increasing accuracy and precision, taking repeat readings when appropriate
  • record data and results of increasing complexity using scientific diagrams and labels, classification keys, tables, scatter graphs, bar and line graphs,
  • report and present findings from enquiries, including conclusions, causal relationships and explanations  results, explanations of and degree of trust in results, in oral and written forms such as displays and other presentations
  • identify scientific evidence that has been used to support or refute ideas or arguments.                                                 

Animals including Humans (Y3)

  • find out about and describe the basic needs of animals, including humans, for survival (water, food and air)
  • describe the importance for humans of exercise, eating the right amounts of different types of food, and hygiene
  • identify, name, draw and label the basic parts of the human body…
  • identify that animals, including humans, need the right types and amount of nutrition, and that they cannot make their own food; they get nutrition from what they eat
  • identify that humans and some other animals have skeletons and muscles for support, protection and movement

 

 

  • recognise the impact of diet, exercise, drugs and lifestyle on the way their bodies function.
  • Identify and name the main parts of the human circulatory system, and describe the functions of the heart, blood vessels and blood (including the pulse and clotting).
  • describe the ways in which nutrients and water are transported within animals, including humans

Plants (Y3)

 

  • identify and name a variety of common wild and garden plants, including deciduous and evergreen trees
  • identify and describe the basic structure of a variety of common flowering plants, including trees
  • find out and describe how plants need water, light and a suitable temperature to grow and stay healthy.
  • observe and describe how seeds and bulbs grow into mature plants
  • observe changes across the four seasons

 

 

 

 

  • identify and describe the functions of different parts of flowering plants: roots, stem/trunk leaves and flowers

 

  • explore the requirements of plants for life and growth (air, light, water, nutrients from soil, and room to grow) and how they vary from plant to plant
  • investigate the way in which water is transported within plants
  • explore the role of flowers in the life cycle of flowering plants, including pollination, seed formation and seed dispersal.

 

  • recognise that living things (plants) produce offspring of the same kind but normally offspring vary and are not identical to their parents
  • describe the life process of reproduction in some plants

Animals including Humans (Y4)

  • find out about and describe the basic needs of animals, including humans, for survival (water, food and air)
  •  describe the importance for humans of exercise, eating the right amounts of different types of food, and hygiene
  • identify and name a variety of common animals that are carnivores, herbivores and omnivores
  • describe how animals obtain their food from plants and other animals, using the idea of a simple food chain, and identify and name different sources of food

 

  • describe the simple functions of the basic parts of the digestive system in humans
  • identify the different types of teeth in humans and their simple functions.
  • Construct and interpret a variety of food chains, identifying producers, predators and prey

 

 

 

  • identify and name the main parts of the human circulatory system, and describe the functions of the heart, blood vessels and blood (including the pulse and clotting).
  • recognise the impact of diet, exercise, drugs and lifestyle on the way their bodies function.
  • describe the ways in which nutrients and water are transported within animals, including humans

 

Living things and their habitats (Y4)

  • identify and name a variety of common animals including fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals
  • identify and name a variety of common animals that are carnivores, herbivores and omnivores
  • identify and name a variety of plants and animals in their habitats, including micro-habitats
  • identify that most living things live in habitats to which they are suited and describe how different habitats provide for the basic needs of different kinds of animals and plants, and how they depend on each other

 

  • recognise that living things can be grouped in a variety of ways
  • explore and use classification keys to help group, identify and name a variety of living things in their local and wider environment
  • recognise that environments can change constantly changing and that this can sometimes pose dangers to specific habitats

 

  • describe how living things are classified into broad groups according to common observable characteristics and based on similarities and differences, including micro-organisms, plants and animals
  • give reasons for classifying plants and animals based on specific characteristics
  • identify how animals and plants are adapted to suit their environment in different ways and adaption leads to evolution

Properties of materials – Rocks (Y3)

  • distinguish between an object and the material from which it is made
  • compare and group together a variety of everyday materials on the basis of their simple physical properties
  • describe the simple physical properties of a variety of everyday materials
  •  identify and compare the uses of a variety of everyday materials, including wood, metal, plastic, glass, brick, rock,  paper and cardboard for particular uses

 

  • compare and group together different kinds of rocks on the basis of their simple physical properties
  • recognise that soils are made from rocks and organic matter
  • describe in simple terms how fossils are formed when things that have lived are trapped within rock

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • compare and group together everyday materials based on evidence from comparative and fair tests, including their hardness, solubility, transparency, conductivity (electrical and thermal), and response to magnets
  • give reasons, based on evidence from comparative and fair tests, for the particular uses of everyday materials, including metals, wood and plastic
  • demonstrate that dissolving, mixing and changes of state are reversible changes
  • explain that some changes result in the formation of new materials, and that this kind of change is not usually reversible, including changes associated with burning and the action of acid on bicarbonate of soda.

 

 

 

 

States of matter - Changing materials (Y4)

  • describe the simple physical properties of a variety of everyday materials
  • compare and group together a variety of everyday materials on the basis of their simple physical properties
  • find out how the shapes of solid objects made from some materials can be changed by squashing, bending, twisting and stretching

 

 

  • compare and group materials together, according to whether they are solids, liquids or gases
  • observe that some materials change state when they are heated or cooled, and measure or research the temperature at which this happens in degrees Celsius (°C)
  • identify the part played by evaporation and condensation in the water cycle and associate the rate of evaporation with temperature

 

  • use knowledge of solids, liquids and gases to decide how mixtures might be separated, including through filtering, sieving and evaporating
  • demonstrate that dissolving, mixing and changes of state are reversible changes
  • Know that some materials will dissolve in liquid to form a solution, and describe how to recover a substance from a solution
  • explain that some changes result in the formation of new materials, and that this kind of change is not usually reversible, including changes associated with burning and the action of acid on bicarbonate of soda.

 

Forces and Movement (Y3)

               

  • describe the simple physical properties of a variety of everyday materials (attracted to a magnet or not)
  • compare and group together a variety of everyday materials on the basis of their simple physical properties(attracted to a magnet or not)

 

  • compare how things move on different surfaces
  • notice that some forces need contact between two objects but magnetic forces act at a distance
  • observe how magnets attract or repel each other and attract some materials and not others
  • compare and group together a variety of everyday materials on the basis of whether they are attracted to a magnet, and identify some magnetic materials
  •  describe magnets as having two poles
  • predict whether two magnets will attract or repel each other, depending on which poles are facing.
  • explain that unsupported objects fall towards the Earth because of the force of gravity acting between the Earth and the falling object

 

  • identify the effect of  air resistance, water resistance and friction, that act between moving surfaces

 

Light (Y3)

  • describe the simple physical properties of a variety of everyday materials (opaque, translucent, transparent materials)
  • compare and group together a variety of everyday materials on the basis of their simple physical properties  (opaque, translucent, transparent material)
  • observe and describe weather associated with the seasons and how day length varies.

       (explore making shadows)

 (observe and name a variety of sources of light, including electric lights, flames and the Sun)

 

  • recognise that they need light in order to see things and that dark is the absence of light
  • notice that light is reflected from surfaces
  • recognise that shadows are formed when a light source is blocked by a solid object
  • find patterns in the way that the size of shadows change
  • recognise that light from the Sun can be dangerous and that there are ways to protect our eyes

 

 

  • recognise that light appears to travel in straight lines
  • use the idea that light travels in straight lines to explain that objects are seen because they give out or reflect light into the eye
  • explain that we see things because light travels from light sources to our eyes or from light sources to objects and then to our eyes
  • use the idea that light travels in straight lines to explain why shadows have the same shape as the objects that cast them

 

Electricity (Y4)

 

(explore battery powered toys and carry out a variety of enquires related to these).

  • identify common appliances that run on electricity
  • construct a simple series electrical circuit identifying and naming  the basic parts of a simple electrical circuit, including cells, wires, bulbs, switches and buzzers
  • identify whether or not a lamp will light in a simple series circuit based on whether or not the lamp is part of a complete loop with a battery
  • recognise that a switch opens and closes a circuit and associate this with whether or not a lamp lights in a simple series circuit
  • recognise some common conductors and insulators, and associate metals with being good conductors

 

  • associate the brightness of a lamp or the volume of a buzzer with the number and voltage of cells used in the circuit
  • compare and give reasons for variations in how components function, including the brightness of bulbs, the loudness of buzzers and the on/off position of switches
  • use recognised symbols when representing a simple circuit in a diagram

 

 

 

 

 

Sound (Y4)

( explore different ways of making and altering  sounds …  experiment making sounds of differing volume and pitch)

(observe and name a variety of sources of sound, noticing that we hear with our ears)

  • identify how sounds are made, associating some of them with something vibrating
  • recognise that vibrations from sound travel through a medium to the ear
  • recognise that sounds get fainter as the distance from the sound source increases
  • find patterns between the pitch of a sound and features of the object that produced it
  • find patterns between the volume of a sound and the strength of the vibrations that produced it.

 

(Enquiry based unit linked to design technology with either children designing sound proofing for a house or ear protectors and designing and making a musical instrument )

 

 

 

 

Year 3 – key vocabulary

 

Plants

Photosynthesis, pollen, insect/wind pollination, seed formation, seed dispersal – wind dispersal, animal dispersal, water dispersal

 

Light

Light, light source, dark, absence of light, transparent, translucent, opaque, shiny, matt, surface, shadow, reflect, mirror, sunlight, dangerous

 

Forces and magnets

 

Force, push, pull, twist, contact force, non-contact force, magnetic force, magnet, strength, bar magnet, ring magnet, button magnet, horseshoe magnet, attract, repel, magnetic material, metal, iron, steel, poles, north pole, south pole

 

Rocks and soils

 

Rock, stone, pebble, boulder, grain, crystals, layers, hard, soft, texture, absorb water, soil, fossil, marble, chalk, granite, sandstone, slate, soil, peat, sandy/chalk/clay soil

 

Animals and humans

Nutrition, nutrients, carbohydrates, sugars, protein, vitamins, minerals, fibre, fat, water, skeleton, bones, muscles, support, protect, move, skull, ribs, spine, muscles, joints

 

 

 

Year 4 – key vocabulary

 

Living things and habitats

 

Classification, classification keys, environment, habitat, human impact, positive, negative, migrate, hibernate

 

Animals and humans

 

Digestive system, digestion, mouth, teeth, saliva, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, nutrients, large intestine, rectum, anus, teeth, incisor, canine, molar, premolars, herbivore, carnivore, omnivore, producer, predator, prey, food chain

 

Electricity

Electricity, electrical appliance/device, mains, plug, electrical circuit, complete circuit, component, cell, battery, positive, negative, connect/connections, loose connection, short circuit, crocodile clip, bulb, switch, buzzer, motor, conductor, insulator, metal, non-metal, symbol

 

Sound

Sound, source, vibrate, vibration, travel, pitch (high, low), volume, faint, loud, insulation

 

States of matter

Solid, liquid, gas, state change, melting, freezing, melting point, boiling point, evaporation, temperature, water cycle

 

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